På spaning efter den goda läroboken : om pedagogiska texters lärande potential
Wikman, Tom (2004-12-17)
Åbo Akademis förlag - Åbo Akademi University Press
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By interpreting research results about textbooks this study tries to answer the question: how should texts be formulated to optimize the learning of the reading pupil? Seven perspectives structure the research: History. The amount of information available in a society influences the learning offered by textbooks. A compressed description indicates that memorizing activities have turned to tendencies for critical reading. Curriculum. The decentralization of curriculum development accentuates the importance of the textbook authors as interpreters of significant information. Because of the authority of textbooks, the way that information is presented can function as an unintended curriculum. Use. In the use of textbooks different functions can be identified. Thus the textbooks have, for instance, an authoritarian, a cohesive and a disciplinary function. Level of difficulty. A text that optimally matches the skills of the readers ina class should both provide facilitating scaffolds for the learning and at the same time challenge especially capable students by not being too obvious. Changing of preconceptions. The only possible starting point for teaching is the knowledge developed earlier by the student. In certain areas misconceptions are usual, which motivates the use of conceptual change texts that enhance the transformation of earlier obtained knowledge. Coherence. Well structured texts can usually be considered beneficial for learning. The same applies to the use of meta-discourse guiding the reader through the text. If the structuring is too obvious, the content may not, at least by capable students, be processed on a deep level. Content. The analysis underlines the need for deep approaches in textbooks. Though this is a relative statement, textbooks from a learning perspective seem to have been too superficial in their presentations. Ten principles were developed as a concluding interpretation of the good textbook. Though these principles capture important tendencies for developing a good textbook, textbook writing has to be considered as an art that cannot be captured in a short formula. The paradoxes identified indicate that the results should be seen as a starting point for further research.
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