• On the Properties and Cosmology of Q-balls 

      Multamäki, Tuomas (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 272, 2001)
      The properties and cosmological importance of a class of non-topological solitons, Q-balls, are studied. Aspects of Q-ball solutions and Q-ball cosmology discussed in the literature are reviewed. Q-balls are particularly ...
    • Covariant Phase Observables in Quantum Mechanics 

      Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 288, 2002)
      The aim of this thesis is to present a solution to the quantum phase problem of the single-mode optical field. The solution is based on the use of phase shift covariant normalized positive operator measures. These measures ...
    • Imprecise measurements in quantum mechanics 

      Heinonen, Teiko (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 344, 14.01.2006)
      In this thesis the structure and properties of imprecise quantum measurements are investigated. The starting point for this investigation is the representation of a quantum observable as a normalized positive operator ...
    • Improvements in the Assessment of Bacterial Viability and Killing 

      Lehtinen, Janne (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 372, 21.09.2007)
      It is axiomatic that our planet is extensively inhabited by diverse micro-organisms such as bacteria, yet the absolute diversity of different bacterial species is widely held to be unknown. Different bacteria can be found ...
    • New directions in Stochastic Multicriteria Acceptability Analysis 

      Tervonen, Tommi (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 376, 01.12.2007)
      Decisions taken in modern organizations are often multi-dimensional, involving multiple decision makers and several criteria measured on different scales. Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods are designed to ...
    • Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates and Topological Defects 

      Mäkelä, Harri (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 378, 01.12.2007)
      This thesis concentrates on the topological defects of spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates, the ground states of spin-3 condensates, and the inert states of spinor condensates with arbitrary spin. Our work is based ...
    • Moment Operators of Observables in Quantum Mechanics, with Applications to Quantization and Homodyne Detection 

      Kiukas, Jukka (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 380, 19.01.2008)
      The questions studied in this thesis are centered around the moment operators of a quantum observable, the latter being represented by a normalized positive operator measure. The moment operators of an observable are ...
    • Brown algal phlorotannins: Improving and applying chemical methods 

      Koivikko, Riitta (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 381, 22.02.2008)
      Phlorotannins are the least studied group of tannins and are found only in brown algae. Hitherto the roles of phlorotannins, e.g. in plant-herbivore interactions, have been studied by quantifying the total contents of the ...
    • The Cosmic Production of Helium 

      Casagrande, Luca (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 382, 22.04.2008)
    • Streptavidin - A Versatile Binding Protein for Solid-Phase Immunoassays 

      Välimaa, Lasse (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 383, 06.06.2008)
      Streptavidin, a tetrameric protein secreted by <i>Streptomyces avidinii,</i> binds tightly to a small growth factor biotin. One of the numerous applications of this high-affinity system comprises the streptavidin-coated ...
    • Two-photon excitation fluorometry in detection of infectious diseases 

      Koskinen, Janne O. (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 384, 21.11.2008)
      Because of the heavily overlapping symptoms, pathogen-specific diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases is difficult based on clinical symptoms alone. Therefore, patients are often treated empirically. More efficient ...
    • Surface Studies of Thiolate Adsorbates on Some Metals 

      Laiho, Taina (05.12.2008)
      The results and discussions in this thesis are based on my studies about selfassembled thiol layers on gold, platinum, silver and copper surfaces. These kinds of layers are two-dimensional, one molecule thick and covalently ...
    • Type II aromatic polyketide biosynthetic tailoring enzymes: diversity and adaptation in Streptomyces secondary metabolism. 

      Kallio, Pauli (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis AI 386, 12.12.2008)
      Members of the bacterial genus <i>Streptomyces</i> are well known for their ability to produce an exceptionally wide selection of diverse secondary metabolites. These include natural bioactive chemical compounds which have ...
    • Reduction and Analysis Methods of Indigo 

      Vuorema, Anne (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 388, 19.12.2008)
      Throughout history indigo was derived from various plants for example Dyer’s Woad (<i>Isatis tinctoria</i> L.) in Europe. In the 19th century were the synthetic dyes developed and nowadays indigo is mainly synthesized from ...
    • Studies of Eu- and Yb-induced Reconstructions on the Si(100) Surface 

      Perälä, Riitta (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 387, 19.12.2008)
      This thesis presents experimental studies of rare earth (RE) metal induced structures on Si(100) surfaces. Two divalent RE metal adsorbates, Eu and Yb, are investigated on nominally flat Si(100) and on vicinal, stepped ...
    • Efficient Channel Modeling Methods for Mobile Communication Systems 

      Poikonen, Jussi (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 389, 17.01.2009)
    • Nanoparticle Labels in Bioaffinity Assays 

      Valanne, Antti (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 390, 27.02.2009)
      Nanoparticles offer adjustable and expandable reactive surface area compared to the more traditional solid phase forms utilized in bioaffinity assays due to the high surface to-volume ratio. The versatility of nanoparticles ...
    • Highly functional binding surface for miniaturised solid-phase immunoassays. - A spot story - 

      Ylikotila, Johanna (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 391, 06.03.2009)
      Several bioaffinity assays are based on the detection of an analyte which is bound on a solid substrate via biochemical interaction. These so called solid phase assays are based on the adhesion of the primary binding partner ...
    • Tautomerism and Fragmentation of Biologically Active Hetero Atom (O, N)-Containing Acyclic and Cyclic Compounds Under Electron Ionization 

      Martiskainen, Olli (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 392, 17.04.2009)
      In this thesis a total of 86 compounds containing the hetero atoms oxygen and nitrogen were studied under electron ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS). These compounds are biologically active and were synthesized by various ...
    • Evolution and Stellar Content of AGN Host Galaxies 

      Hyvönen, Tomi (Annales Universitatis Turkuensis A I 394, 09.05.2009)
      In this dissertation, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and their host galaxies are discussed. Together with transitional events, such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts, AGN are the most energetic phenomena in the Universe. ...