• Digital Waste? Unintended Consequences of Health Information Technology 

      Böckerman, Petri; Kortelainen, Mika; Laine, Liisa T.; Nurminen, Mikko; Saxell, Tanja
      VATT Working Papers : 117 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 04.04.2019)
      We exploit a large-scale natural experiment - the rollout of a nationwide electronic prescribing system in Finland - to study how digitization of prescriptions affects pharmaceutical use and health outcomes. We use ...
    • Dimensions of health care system quality in Finland 

      Pääkkönen, Jenni; Seppälä, Timo
      VATT Working Papers : 31 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 28.05.2012)
      This paper evaluates the determinants of quality - cost relationship in primary health care. We first summarize information from various indicators of care by principal component analysis (PCA), effectively producing quality ...
    • Dimming Hopes for Nuclear Power: Quantifying the Social Costs of Perceptions of Risks 

      Huhtala, Anni; Remes, Piia
      VATT Working Papers : 57 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 08.07.2016)
      The preferences expressed in voting on nuclear reactor licenses and the risk perceptions of citizens provide insights into social costs of nuclear power and decision making in energy policy. We show analytically that these ...
    • The (Displacement) Effects of Spatially Targeted Enterprise Initiatives: Evidence from UK LEGI 

      Einiö, Elias; Overman, Henry
      VATT Working Papers : 71 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 07.03.2016)
      We investigate the impacts of a significant area-based intervention (LEGI) that aimed to increase employment and entrepreneurial activity in 30 disadvantaged areas across England. We examine the spatial pattern of effects ...
    • Distributional effects of Finland's climate policy package - Calculations with the new income distribution module of the VATTAGE model 

      Honkatukia, Juha; Marttila, Kimmo; Kinnunen, Jouko
      VATT Working Papers : 11 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 13.11.2009)
      In this report we present a new version of the VATTAGE AGE (Applied General Equilibrium) model, which enables distributional analysis of policy changes. We also report estimation results of LES consumption function for ...
    • Dividend taxes and decisions of MNEs: Evidence from a Finnish tax reform 

      Kari, Seppo; Harju, Jarkko
      VATT Working Papers : 27 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 12.10.2011)
      We explore how a firm-level tax on redistributed foreign profits affects the choices of a multinational enterprise (MNE) using evidence from a recent tax reform in Finland. The so-called equalization tax (EQT) used to be ...
    • Do homeowners benefit urban neighborhoods? Evidence from housing prices 

      Saarimaa, Tuukka; Kortelainen, Mika
      VATT Working Papers : 36 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 03.09.2012)
      Homeownership is heavily subsidized in many countries mainly through the tax code. The adverse effects of lenient tax treatment of owner-occupied housing on economic efficiency and growth are large and well documented in ...
    • Do Single-Party and Coalition Governments Differ in their Economic Outcomes? Evidence from Finnish Municipalities 

      Meriläinen, Jaakko
      VATT Working Papers : 51 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 07.10.2013)
      Even though Finland has proportional elections, single-party control in Finnish local councils is not uncommon contrary to what one might expect. The largest party holds more than half of the seats in every third Finnish ...
    • Do tax incentives for research increase firm innovation? An RD Design for RD 

      Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Einiö, Elias; Martin, Ralf; Nguyen, Kieu-Trang; Van Reenen, John
      VATT Working Papers : 73 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 13.04.2016)
      We present the first evidence showing causal impact of research and development (R&D) tax incentives on innovation outcomes. We exploit a change in the asset-based size thresholds for eligibility for R&D tax subsidies and ...
    • Does experience rating reduce disability inflow? 

      Kyyrä, Tomi; Tuomala, Juha
      VATT Working Papers : 46 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 25.04.2013)
      This study explores whether the experience rating of employers' disability insurance premiums affects the inflow of older employees to disability benefits in Finland. To identify the causal effect of experience rating, we ...
    • Does information increase the take-up of social benefits? Evidence from a new benefit program 

      Matikka, Tuomas; Paukkeri, Tuuli
      VATT Working Papers : 83 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 28.12.2016)
      The effectiveness of transfer programs can be significantly reduced if eligible individuals fail to apply for them. In this paper we study the impact of information provision on the take-up of social benefits. We exploit ...
    • Does Mandating Social Insurance Affect Entrepreneurial Activity? 

      Benzarti, Youssef; Harju, Jarkko; Matikka, Tuomas
      VATT Working Papers : 119 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 18.06.2019)
      This paper estimates the effect of relaxing the social insurance mandate on entrepreneurial activity using rich administrative data from Finland. We find that relaxing the social insurance mandate leads entrepreneurs to ...
    • Does Regression Discontinuity Design Work? Evidence from Random Election Outcomes 

      Hyytinen, Ari; Meriläinen, Jaakko; Saarimaa, Tuukka; Toivanen, Otto; Tukiainen, Janne
      VATT Working Papers : 59 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 21.09.2015)
      We use elections data in which a large number of ties in vote counts between candidates are resolved via lottery. We benchmark non-experimental RDD estimates of personal incumbency advantage against the estimate produced ...
    • Early retirement policy in the presence of competing exit pathways: Evidence from policy reforms in Finland 

      Kyyrä, Tomi
      VATT Working Papers : 17 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 12.11.2010)
      A majority of older Finns withdraw from employment via early retirement schemes years before the statutory retirement age. Over the past 15 years, a series of policy reforms have been introduced to reduce the widespread ...
    • Economic crises and unemployment persistence: Analysis of job losses during the Finnish 1990s recession 

      Verho, Jouko
      VATT Working Papers : 99 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 20.11.2017)
      This study estimates the effect of job loss for Finnish workers displaced during a severe recession in the early 1990s. The setting provides a sample of workers of which over 90% experienced unemployment after losing a job ...
    • The effect of church tax on church membership 

      Lyytikäinen, Teemu; Santavirta, Torsten
      VATT Working Papers : 20 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 30.12.2010)
      Abstract In this study we examine the effect of church tax on the church membership decision using Finnish data. We present both descriptive statistics from an opting-out website and econometric evidence exploiting the ...
    • The Effect of Job Displacement on Couples' Fertility Decisions 

      Huttunen, Kristiina; Kellokumpu, Jenni
      VATT Working Papers : 29 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 22.03.2012)
      This paper analyzes the effects of job displacement on fertility using Finnish longitudinal employer-employee data (FLEED) matched to birth records. We distinguish between male and female job losses. We focus on couples ...
    • The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration 

      Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael
      VATT Working Papers : 1 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 23.02.2009)
      We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplementary unemployment insurance benefits in the Danish labour market. Following the 'timing-of-events' approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time ...
    • Effectiveness of Private and Public High Schools: Evidence from Finland 

      Kortelainen, Mika; Manninen, Kalle
      VATT Working Papers : 108 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus, 16.05.2018)
      A number of papers have compared the effectiveness of private and public schools in different institutional settings. However, most of these studies are observational and do not utilize experimental or quasi-experimental ...
    • Effects of minimum bid increment in internet auctions: Evidence from a field experiment 

      Tukiainen, Janne
      VATT Working Papers : 44 (Valtion taloudellinen tutkimuskeskus VATT, 15.02.2013)
      I study the role of minimum bid increments (MBI) in internet auctions using natural field experiment data from a Finnish online auction site Huuto.net. Internet auctions are typically viewed as secondprice, implying truthful ...